THE PROCESS OF MOVING FROM plan to printed manuscript are often a frightening one. Here we tend to break that method into a series of steps designed build this essential task additional manageable. Our list has been changed and dilated from an inventory provided by the Council of Biological Editors, 1968. If twenty steps are too several to manage, specialise in the thirteen steps that we’ve got marked with an asterisk (*) — these can’t be skipped!
1) Confirm the authors. once planning a search project, we tend to advocate making ready an initial list and order of authors.
Such an inventory authors ought to be supported established tips and will build express the calculable contribution of every individual to the project. we tend to advocate that each analysis cluster establish and expose to its members the factors for authorship on papers ensuing from the work to be conducted. In therefore doing, the cluster might need to create use of existing guidelines; see our essay on “Components of a search Article.”
A list of authors can make sure that all people to be concerned within the project perceive at the starting time whether or not or not they’ll expect to be an author and, if so, what their contribution is to be. It ought to be viewed as a tentative list, because the final version ought to mirror actual contributions to the work.
2. Begin writing before the experiments are complete
begin writing whereas you’re still doing the experiments. Writing usually evokes new ideas: you’ll realize that there are further experiments to run or further controls that you just have to be compelled to add. If you wait till you’re exhausted the research lab, have demolished the instrumentation, and probably captive on to a different position, you may not have the chance to check these ideas.
3. Decide it’s time to publish
It’s time to publish once your findings represent a whole story (or a minimum of a whole chapter), one that may build a big contribution to the scientific literature. merely aggregation a given quantity of knowledge isn’t adequate.
4. Draft a title & abstract
Drafting a operating title and an abstract helps outline the contents of the paper, distinctive that experiments you may publish during this paper, and that studies you may then again inclusion in another paper.
5. Re-examine the list of authors.
Once you have currently determined that experiments are going to be enclosed during this paper you want to choose the authors and also the order during which they’re going to seem. If you have got followed our recommendation to the present purpose, you have already got such an inventory. Measure it supported the contributions that were created to those experiments and also the further contributions that may be created through the preparation of the manuscript. If an inventory already exists, build changes to confirm compliance together with your tips. Of course, any changes ought to be through with caution and tactfulness.
6. Confirm the essential format.
There are 3 basic formats for peer-reviewed research articles:
• Full-length research articles: These articles contain a comprehensive investigation of the topic matter and are viewed because the normal format. It uses the “IMRAD” format: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion. (See “Components of an exploration Article.”)
• Short (or brief) communications: whereas not as comprehensive in scope as full-length research articles, these papers additionally create a big contribution to the literature. Their length are going to be set by the journal however is sometimes 3500 words or less and can contain up to two tables and figures.
Unlike full papers, methods, results, and discussions is also combined into one section.
• Speedy Communications: These articles quickly diffuse notably “hot” findings, sometimes in a very brief communication format. Articles that have immediate implications for public health would be applicable for such a format, as may findings in a very extremely competitive and quickly moving field.
7. Choose the journal.
There are many factors to contemplate once selecting a journal. it’s unlikely that one journal can have all the options you’re trying to find, therefore you’ll ought to compromise. However, there’s one essential feature you ought to} not compromise on — manuscripts must be peer reviewed for publication if they’re to be thought-about research articles.
Language: English has become the dominant kind for international scientific communication. Thus, if you’re fascinated by act your results wide to the international scientific community, then it’s essential to publish in English. If, on the opposite hand, you would like to speak to a additional localized community (e.g., physicians in a very explicit geographical area), you would possibly selected a journal that allows another language.
Focus: What style of research will the journal publish? Is its focus broad or narrow? that disciplines are represented? what’s the journal’s
orientation — for instance, is it clinical or basic, theoretical or applied?
Indexing: is that the journal indexed within the major electronic databases like telephone system, Biological Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts, or Current Contents?
Availability: is that the journal loosely available? Is there an internet version of the journal? are papers provided in PDF format?
Reputation: though it are often rather subjective, there are many ways in which to measure the name of a journal. raise colleagues that journals they respect. examine recent articles and decide their importance. Check the members of the editorial board and confirm if they’re leaders in their fields. confirm the journal’s impact issue. Try and resolve the acceptance rate of the journal.
Format: does one just like the look of revealed articles — the format, typeface, and elegance employed in citing references? If relevant, will the journal publish short and/or speedy communications?
Figures: Do figures revealed within the journal have the resolution that you simply need? Time to Print: using the “date submitted” and a “date accepted” that are revealed on the article, at the side of the date of the difficulty, you’ll be able to estimate the length of the review method further because the time from acceptance to publication in print.
Charges: Some journals bill the author for page charges, a price per final written page. Most journals have a separate charge for color plates. this might be the maximum amount as $1000 per color plate. several journals can waive page charges if this presents a money hardship for the author; color plate charges are less-readily waived and would a minimum of need proof that the colour is crucial to the presentation of the info (e.g., to indicate a double-labeled cell).
Once you opt on a journal, get and skim that journal’s directions to authors. This document describes the format for your article and provides info on a way to submit your manuscript. you’ll be able to sometimes get a replica of the journal’s directions to authors on its site or within the initial
issue of a replacement volume.
8. Stock the sections of your paper.
As you think that regarding your paper, store relevant material in folders marked Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. this can save time and avoid frustration once the writing begins. keep things may embrace figures, references, and ideas.
9. Construct the tables, figures, and legends.
Yes, produce figures and tables before the writing begins! the complete paper ought to be organized round the knowledge you’ll gift. By getting ready the tables and figures (and their legends and applicable applied mathematics analyses), you’ll make sure of your results before you are concerned an excessive amount of regarding their interpretation. you furthermore may is also ready to confirm if you have got all the info you would like. Note: except below uncommon circumstance, you’ll not embrace any knowledge that you simply have already revealed. (See “Components of an exploration Paper.”)
10. Define the paper. a top level view is sort of a road map.
a top level view details however you’ll get from here to there, and helps make sure that you’re taking the foremost direct and logical route. don’t begin writing while not it! If you have got coauthors, you’ll want to urge feedback from them before you proceed to the particular writing part. And if you have got “stocked” your sections (Step 8), those files ought to be helpful here and within the writing that follows.